The Four Aspects Of Qadr:
In order to correctly understand the issue of Qadar, the following four terms need to studied in detail:-
- Al-Ilm (Knowledge)
- Kitaabah (Writing)
- Mash’eeah (Will)
- Al-Khalq (Creation)
In the regard of ‘Ilm, it is essential to believe that;
1. Allaah knows everything about His Creation, even before He created them
2. Allaah alone chooses on whom to bestow guidance, the choice being related to his Knowledge
3. Allaah knows the outcome of His choice
Allah’s Knowledge compasses everything. He knew what had occurred and what will occur, and all that did not occur. He knew everything about His creation even before He created it. In His Eternal Knowledge is the provision, life-spans, sayings, moves and deeds of His creation; and knows who among them is obedient or disobedient, and who will be among the people of al-Jannah (Paradise) or the people of an-Nar (Hell-Fire).
“Verily Allaah is the All-Knower of everything.”
Soorah al-Anfaal (8):75
Al-Kitaabah means that Allaah wrote everything about His creation; their livelihood, provision, life-spans, deeds, etc. All this is written in Umm al-Kitaab (lit. Mother of all books, also known as al-Lauhul Mahfoudh (the Preserved Tablet)
“Do you not know, that Allaah knows all that is in the heaven and in the earth? Verily! It is all in the Book. Verily! That is easy for Allaah.”
Soorah al-Hajj (22): 7
Other Writings of Taqdeer:
There is evidence from the Qur’aan and Sunnah, that apart from the writing of Taqdeer that Allaah commanded on al-Laauh al-Mahfoudh (The Preserved Tablet) there are other writings of Taqdeer, among them are:-
- The Taqdeer al-Umuri (Covering the person’s life span):
The Person’s livelihood, life-term, deeds and his status in the Hereafter (wretched or blessed) are written while in the mother’s womb at an early stage of his development. This is confirmed in the Hadeeth related by Abdullah bin Masood who said, that the Messenger of Allaah (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) said:
“The creation of everyone of you is collected for the first forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of a Nutfah after which it turns into a Alaqa for an equal period. Then it becomes a Mudhqah for a similar period and then Allaah sends an angel with four words recording: the person’s provision, his life term, his deeds, or whether he will be of the wretched or the blessed (in the Hereafter).”
Sahih al-Bukhari vol.8, p.387, no.593 and Sahih Muslim vol.4, p.1391, no.6390
- The Annual Taqdeer:
This Taqdeer takes place on the night of decree (Lailat al-Qadr), Allaah, the Exalted says:
“Therein (that night) is decreed every matter of ordainment”
Soorah ad-Dukhaan (44): 4
- The Daily Taqdeer:
It directs the pre-ordained Taqdeer according to its previously appointed terms and on its specific times. Allaah says:
“Whosoever is in the heavens and on the earth ask of Him (for their needs). Everyday He has a matter to bring forth.”
Soorah ar-Rehman (55): 29
It is essential to believe that Allaah has willed everything that goes on in the universe. His Will and His pre-ordaining power effectively covers everything. Whatever He Wills, will occur and whatever He does not Will, will never take place.
* Speaking about the people of the Book, Allaah warned the Prophet not to follow their desires and commanded him to follow what Allaah has brought down to him, the Qur’aan. And said,
“If Allaah willed, He would have made you one nation, but that (He) may test you in what He has given you.”
Soorah al-Maaidah (5): 48
Had Allaah wished to have us follow one Book, one legislation and one Messenger, at all times and all places, He would have done that. But Allaah willed to test his slaves with trials that distinguish between the obedient and the disobedient. He is all-Just and all-Wise in His Mashee’ah.
Understanding Mashee’ah (Will) and Iradah (What Allaah wants):
- Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah or the Universal will:
It is the will (Mashee’ah) of Allaah in which His intention is carried out. It is not necessary that all actions of His creation are liked by Him, rather many of their acts are disliked by Him, but He willed for them to pass. This is Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah.
For Example: Allaah created Shaitaan, yet He hates him. Likewise, He created the Kuffar, but He hates them. Whatever Allaah permits to exist, does not mean that He loves them. This is Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah (or Universal will). Under this will, Allaah may decree to pass things which He does not command His slaves to follow (like Kuffr and disobedience).
- Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah or Judicial will:
It is that which is in accordance with Allaah’s legislation. It is related to what Allaah likes, whether it takes place or not.
For Example: The acts of obedience from the angels, prophets and believers are loved by Allaah and are passed by His Universal will. Under Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah it is not necessary that His commands will be executed. The Kuffar rebel against Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah.
The True believer follows, does not dispute and submits to the legislative commands of Allaah. This is the right of Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah upon every slave of Allaah. In the light of Al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah and Al-Iradah ash-Shariyyah, let us examine the response of Umer Ibn al-Khattab when he was blamed for deciding not to enter ash-Shaam (Greater Syria) because of a sudden outbreak of plague. He was told: Are you running away from something which Allaah has ordained? Omer replied: “Yes! We run away from that Allaah has ordained (in the case of plague) to another thing which Allaah has ordained.”
* Therefore if someone is touched by hunger, thirst or cold, all of which are preordained by Allaah, all are from the Qadar; the response would be to eat, drink and put on clothes, thus checking the Qadar with Qadar to the best of his ability. He checks the fire with water or soil until it is extinguished. He extinguishes the Qadar of Allaah (fire) with another Qadar of Allaah (water). Similarly with illness, he checks it with another Qadar, medicine. And if an enemy of Islaam plots against the Muslims, then this too is by the Qadar of Allaah. It is incumbent, however on every Muslim to check this Qadar with another Qadar which Allaah loves, and it is the Jihaad by the hand (by enlisting in the Muslim army) or by spending wealth (to support the Muslim soldiers).
* In the case, where the Divine decree is to pass and it cannot be checked. The slave of Allaah must totally submit and recognize the Might of Allaah in His Rulings, Justice in His Decree and Wisdom behind His Decision. That whatever befalls him is not to miss him, and whatever missed him is not to befall him. Examples of such a case would be an accident causing the death of someone close, sudden loss of wealth or any other calamity; where one is totally incapable of averting the harm and thus can only be patient.
“And Verily, when We cause man to taste of Mercy from Us, he rejoices thereat, but when some ill befalls them because of some deeds which their hands have sent forth, then verily man (becomes) ingrate!”
Soorah ash-Shura (42): 48
* Finally, Allaah clarified that misfortunes and calamities are linked to their causes from evil deeds and wrong doings. Allaah had decreed that calamities befall someone because of his wrong doings. However, what reaches man of good, its causes are limitless. The Favor of Allaah could be because of some action of His slave, or simply due to Allaah’s Mercy. It is incumbent for the slave to be thankful to Allaah and seek for His forgiveness.
“Whatever of good reaches you (victory, provisions, health, etc.) is from Allaah, but whatever calamities (fear, stress, illness, etc.) befall you is from yourselves.”
Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4): 79
Al-Khalq : The Creation
* Allaah is the soul creator of everything, including man’s deeds. There is no single atom, static or in motion but that Allaah has created it, as He says:
“Verily! Allaah is the Creator of everything, and He is the Wakil (Guardian, Trustee, etc.) over all things.”
Soorah az-Zumar (39): 62
The rank of Al-Khalq includes the Actions of Allah and the actions of His creatures. The Actions of Allah are true and real. They conform to what is entailed by His Names and Attributes. They influence all of creation in accordance with His Knowledge, Mashee’ah, and Ability. Nothing moves, no matter how small it is, except by His Mashee’ah, Knowledge and Ability. Whomsoever He guides, there is none who can misguide, and whomsoever He misguides, none can guide.
The slave of Allah Has real ability, will, choice and action. Man’s ability to move and to believe are actions that are truly attributed to him. These actions are created by Allah. Man’s movement, standing, sitting, etc. are real actions which Allah decreed, set under His ability, willed, and created them for him. Man’s will and actions are next to His. This is the moderate and straight way of relating the Actions of Allah to those of His Creation. This is the course of As-Salaf us-Salih. It stands against two extremes. The first which claimed that pre-destiny deprived man from his ability and choice. According to this claim, man has no will and no real action, and that he is just like a feather in the wind. This group is known as Al-Jabriyyah.
The Other group totally denied Al-Qadar and claimed that man creates his own actions by his ability and by his will, and thus making creators other than Allah! That is why the Prophet (salallahu alaihi wa salalam) called them the “Majoos (Majians) of this Ummah”, because the Majoos claim that Satan “creates” evil and harmful things, making Satan a “creator” besides Allah. This group is known as Al-Qadariyyah - Abu Dawud
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